Month: May 2016

Zen and The Art of Composting

Abundant earthworms a sign of healthy soil

I love making compost as much as I love actually putting it in my garden. Last week found me turning my bin of cooking compost. The process of putting the pitchfork in, bending my knees and swinging my torso to drop the load into a new pile reminds me of Tai Chi. I find that practicing fluid, unhurried movements – fork to pile, swing to the new pile, dump the detritus onto the new pile, and then swinging back for another fork load, becomes a spiritual exercise as well as a physical one.

In my mind’s eye, I see a complete ecosystem of organisms, from the tiniest bacteria to the fat earthworms that wriggle in and out of the decaying vegetation. There is a certain thrill to the fact that I am part of the process of this cycle of life…and death.

I can’t see the microscopic bacteria, amoebas, mites and protozoans, but I can see their handiwork as they consume nitrogen and sugars from the green and brown materials I have mixed together in this nature cake. I can see the smoke rise and feel the heat as their billions multiply, die and are consumed by larger, but still microscopic  predators – themselves destined for the same fate by even larger organisms. Composting is one of the most “mindful” activities I can think of. I’m not going to belabor the Zen thing, but you get the idea.

Earthworms begin to populate the pile when it cools. I pick out worm every tenth load or so and throw it into a bucket…not for fishing (although I do like to fish), but to add to the worm population in my vegetable garden. I throw in some rotting vegetation for the worms to eat and hide in while I finish turning the pile.

I turn my pile every week or two, until I’ve got good, rich, dark humus, letting it heat up as bacteria begin to multiply again. I could go on about mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria species that alternately heat and cool the pile, but I’m going to spare you the agony. Just know that as the pile heats up, the worms head for cooler pastures, only to return when the pile cools off again.

Earthworms are fascinating creatures. They eat decaying, green vegetation, apple cores and even coffee grounds. That goes through the enzymes and bacteria in their gut and comes out in rich worm castings, which is a euphemism for… well…you know. The castings are also filled with beneficial bacteria which continues to inoculate the soil long after it has left the worm.

A good population of earthworms in an acre-foot of soil can turn eight tons of soil per year. That’s over 1,613 cubic yards. My small pickup can carry about one cubic yard of soil, so that gives you an idea of how much earthworms work.

I’ve always said that if you have earthworms in your soil, you have good soil. Some experts argue that good soil attracts earthworms, while others say that earthworms make good soil. Either way works for me.

Many of the earthworms found here are not indigenous to North America. Instead, they came from Europe. Early colonists – the Jamestown settlers, the Spanish conquistadores, the French, Dutch and German farmers – unknowingly brought native European worms over in plant soil. Once having breached the ocean, the annelids (that’s a generic name for them) didn’t need human assistance to spread themselves across the continent. In some cases they replaced populations of native worms. In other cases they took over areas that had no worms. In Canada and the Upper Midwest, where glaciers scraped the soil from the rock 10,000 years ago, European worms exploited this niche successfully.

Here in Southeast Texas, scientists tell me that we have abundant populations of European species, as well about a 100 native species. Believe me, I can’t tell the difference, although I have no doubt the worms can.

Charles Darwin was one of the first contributors to the study of earthworms. In fact, he published The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms, with Observations of their Habits, the compilation of years of studying the lowly creature. In fact, the book actually outsold his previous book, On the Origin of Species. Read more about Darwin  and his worm studies here.

Photograph by Cliff Roe Photography

Aerate your lawn to keep it healthy and lush

Aerate your lawn to keep it healthy and lush

Landscapers know that one of the most crucial elements to having a beautiful lawn is healthy soil. Healthy soil is loose and aerated, a place where roots can spread deeply and organisms thrive.

Compacted soil, which lies underneath most lawns in The Woodlands, actually sets off a chain reaction.  It encourages puddling.  The soil dries out quickly and becomes rock hard. When that happens, air, water and nutrients cannot penetrate the soil. Beneficial organisms that are necessary for healthy soils die and the soil becomes barren.  The consequences don’t stop there.

Lifeless Soil

Insects, disease and weeds thrive on barren soil. Fungus infections, chinch bugs and other pests attack shallow-rooted grass. Roots struggle to penetrate the compacted soil. They become weak and thin. The beneficial organisms which help process nutrients for the turf and decompose organic material cannot survive in such an environment.

Instead of growing lushly, turf will focus energy on simply surviving. Without moisture, air flow and organisms, it eventually loses the battle. Then the homeowner is forced to resod.


The best practice to combat compacted soil is to aerate followed by a top dressing of organic matter. This allows oxygen, nutrients, micro-organisms  and moisture to penetrate into the soil. Aerations  involves removing plugs of soil at intervals. Top dressing with organic matter (compost) and water it in, the compost will filter down into the holes.

How to aerate

It’s much better to remove the plugs of soil than to simply spike the soil. Spiking simply compacts the sides of the holes. Aerators come in different configurations. Several are simply hand tools resembling garden forks. However, instead of solid tines, they have small cylinders which remove plugs of soil. Some come with hose attachments. These add water to the hole at the same time they are taking plugs out. There are push aerators, which resemble reel lawnmowers, and larger ones with gasoline engines that power themselves. There are also professional landscaping companies which have large industrial aerators. Some outlets rent aerators.

Organic matter and fertilizer

After aeration, add organic matter. Simply spread ½ inch of compost over the turf and either rake or water it in. A 1,000 square-foot lawn needs about 1.5 cubic yards of compost.

Fertilize lightly. Too much fertilizer, or fertilizer with too much nitrogen, can actually harm turf grass by attracting insects that feed on the grass, or damaging the lawn with high levels of mineral salts.  Too much fertilizer will also cause a high flush of growth that can lead to fungal diseases.

Weed and feed products  also stresses turf, especially St. Augustine. These can also damage tree roots.  It’s also a waste of money. Herbicides  need to be applied in late winter, while fertilizer should be applied in late spring. Using them both at the same time wastes one or the other.